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Nouns

Most grammatical relationships among nouns are expressed by suffixed case endings. This page covers:

Noun Morphology

Singular
Drop Declension Genitive Declension
Agentive -an -an
Dative -o -aw
Patientive -os -os
Vocative -el -ăel
Ablative -šyar -šyar
Locative -pa -pa
Attributive -na -na
2. Genitive -že -že
Allative -vo -vo
Superlative -ǧo -ǧo
Comitative -vina -vna
Instrumental -cina -śna

Plural
Both Declensions
Agentive -čyan
Dative -čio
Patientive -čyos
Vocative -tźil
Further -če- + Gen. Decl.

Proper declension requires knowledge of the agentive and genitive singular. The stem of the agentive determines the stem of the dative, patientive, and vocative cases, while the genitive singular determines the stem of the remaining singular cases. Plurals always take the Genitive declension, and undergo their own set of stem changes. For example:
saran, saž-, sarče- "mountain" is of the drop declension (the genitive stem ends in a palatalized consonant). Therefore its forms are as follows:
saran, saro, saros, sažel, sažšyar, sažpa, ... sažvina, sažcena ... sarčyan, sarčio, sarčyos, ... sarčevna, sarčeśna.
ažnan, ažňi-, ažinče- "love" is of the genitive declension (that stem ends in a vowel). Therefore its forms are as follows:
ažnan, ažnaw, ažnos, ažnăel, ažňišyar, ažňipa ... ažnivna, ažniśna ... ažinčyan, ažinčio, ažinčyos ... ažinčevna, ažinčeśna.

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Agentive/Patientive Alignment


In English, the fundamental difference in the grammatical function of nouns is that of subject and object. This is most easily seen on pronouns; the difference between he and him, she and her or they and them. For example:

He fell.

She ran.

He ate them.

He gave them to her.

But we can change two of these sentences, so they describe the same action, but from a different perspective:

They were eaten by him.

She received them from him.

This subject/object difference is not so important to the Tornaysan noun form. Rather, Tornaysan cares more about the agent versus the patient versus the instrument:

Agent
Someone who can choose to do something.
Patient
Someone or something that is done unto, or experiences something, regardless of will.
Instrument
The thing an agent uses to do an action, or a cause which does not have a will of its own.

These three noun cases are fundamental to the rest of the language. Try these examples:


Tasnar-os ixtar.

Tasnaran sleeps. (He experiences this state)

Tasnar-an manar.

Tasnaran goes. (He performs this action)

Kayjeźy-an Tasnar-os sanar.

Kayjeźyan evaluates Tasnaran. (She performs this action on him)

Kayjeź-cina Tasnar-os šeǧolar.

Kayjeźyän captivates Tasnar-an. (Some quality of hers, unwillingly/unwittingly)


Some rules of thumb:


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Peripheral Case Grammar

Dative (DAT)

Indirect Object: Used with the noun to or for which the action is done.
Gochlovan is sending Karšilan (a letter).
Gochlovan Karšilo ifsar.
Gochlov-anKaršil-o ifs-ar.
Gochlov-AKaršil-DATsend-S
Cognitive Experiencer: With verbs of thinking, believing, and sensory experience, the believer/experiencer takes the dative case.
Gochlovan believes a letter would captivate Karšilan.
Gochlovo avenar Karšilos ifšiśna šeǧolos xalar.
Gochlov-o aven-ar Karšil-os ifši-śna šeǧol-os xal-ar.
Gochlov-DATbelieve-SKaršil-Pletter-INScaptivate-PATbe_able-S

Vocative (VOC)

Direct Addressee: When an utterance is directed at some person, their name takes the vocative case.
Dear Karšilan, I am writing this letter to say...
Karšiźel ĝaxtapel, numan ifsos šetar na berar...
Karšiź-elĝaxtap-el,num-anifs-osšet-arnaber-ar…
Karšil-VOCfriend-VOC,1SG-Aletter-PATwrite-Sthatsay-S
Apostrophe: Rhetorical device where something absent or inanimate is addressed.
O Letter, find Karšilän quickly.
Ifsǎel, čef avžina Karšilos.
Ifs-ăel, čef-Ø avži-na Karšil-os.
letter-VOC find-IMP be_quick-ATRKaršil-P

Genitive (GEN)

Alienable Possessor: A noun with ownership or claim over another noun, when that claim is easily separable and not intrinsic or necessary to the properties of the possessed. Material possessions, land claims in a legal sense, and personal relationships not of blood are alienable.
Tasnaran’s quill is perfect (is an example of the type).
Ačkos Tasnažže jemos čeźšyar nočen.
Ačk-os Tasnaž-že jem-os čeź-šyar noč-en.
quill-P Tasnar-GEN example-P type-ABL be-GN
Partitive Genitive: One noun described as a subset of another noun, when there is no motion entailed.
A third of the soldiers bear swords.
Šeastapan gośže źarčyos naxtar.
Šeas-tap-an goś-že źar-čy-os naxt-ar.
three-part-a army-GEN sword-PL-P bear-S
Genitive Absolute: Describes some circumstance surrounding the action.
With Gochlovan as leader, the army departed the castle.
Gochlovže fanmevže goxan sarfičšyar manar.
Gochlov-že fanmev-že gox-an sarfič-šyar man-ar.
Gochlov-GEN leader-GEN gox-A castle-ABL prosper-S

Ablative (ABL)

Ablative of Motion: The noun away from which another moves, including temporally (i.e., since)
The letter came from the castle.
Ifsos sarfičšyar manar.
Ifs-os sarfič-šyar man-ar.
letter-Pcastle-ABL go-S
Caritive Ablative: The noun which another lacks or is separate from.
Pernaran thinks Gochlovan is without sense (literally, without language).
Pernaro avenar Gochlovos nayššyar nočyar.
Pernar-o aven-ar Gochlov-os nayš-šyar nočy-ar.
Pernar-DAT believe-S Gochlov-P language-ABL be-S
Inalienable Possessor: A noun with ownership or claim over another noun, when that claim is related to origin or the necessary support of the possessor. Body parts, heritages, and one's own creations are inalienable.
Gochlovan's hand is strong.
Cenan Gochlovšyar gamben.
Cen-an Gochlov-šyar gamb-en.
hand-A Gochlov-ABL be_strong-GN
Partitive Ablative: One noun described as a subset of another noun, when the part has been separated from the whole.
A third of the army died.
Šeastapos gośšyar nečmar.
Šeas-tap-os goś-šyar nečm-ar.
three-part-P army-ABL kill-S

Locative (LOC)

Location: At, on, at such time as
Tasnaran lives at the castle.
Sarfičpa Tasnaran kažyar.
Sarfič-pa Tasnar-an kažy-ar.
castle-LOC Tasnar-A live-S
Title: In the feudal Torǧavčyan, landowners take the locative form of their possessions as a byname.
Pernaran son of Čeljeran, Baron of Hallowcliff
Pernaran jenan Čelježšyar, Kavan Łuxňežpa
Pernar-an jen-an Čeljež-šyar, Kav-an Łux-ňež-pa
Pernar-A child-A Celjer-ABL Baron-A spirit-cliff-LOC

Allative (ALL)

Allative of Motion: To, toward
Tasnaran went to the castle.
Sarfičvo Tasnaran manar.
Sarfič-vo Tasnar-an man-ar.
castle-ALL Tasnar-A go-S
Allative of Intent: With a gerund, the agent performs an action in order to accomplish another action.
Tasnaran lit a fire to flush the geese.
Hafun-čy-os xayč-vo Tasnar-an lažy-ar.
Hafun-čy-os xayči-v Tasnar-an lažy-ar.
goose-PL-P flush-ALL Tasnar-A set_fire-S

Superlative (SUP)

Superlative of Quality: One noun exceeds another, or spatially, has gone past.
Pernaran is more competent writer than Gochlovan.
Gochlovǧo Pernaros seto firahmyar.
Gochlov-ǧo Pernar-os set-o firahmy-ar.
Gochlov-SUP Pernar-P write-DAT understand-S
Superlative of Topic: In discussion or composition, the thing talked about takes the superlative.
Gochlovan sent (a letter) about (his) victory.
Afciǧo Gochlovan ifsar.
Afci-ǧo Gochlov-an ifs-ar.
victory-SUP Gochlov-A send-S

Attributive (ATR)

Attributive of Quality: A noun is like the marked noun, or a verb is done like the marked noun would do.
Karšilan the raven-haired captivates Tasnaran.
Karšilcena kažna Tasnaros šeǧolar.
Karšiź-cina kaž-na Tasnar-os šeǧol-ar.
Karšiź-INS raven-ATR Gochlov-P captivate-S
Attributive of Role: The marked noun is acting in some specific or official capacity.
Pernaran speaks as a master of the craft.
Etăeśna tayciže Pernaran lapenar.
Etăeś-na tayci-že Pernar-an lapen-ar.
Master-ATR craft-ABL Pernar-A speak-S

Comitative (COM)

Accompaniment: One noun is "with" another noun.
Gochlovan goes with Tasnaran to the forest.
Gochlovan Tasnažvina nažnevo manar.
Gochlov-an Tasnaž-vina nažňe-v man-ar.
Gochlov-A Tasnar-COM forest-ALL go-S

Instrumental (INS)

Instrumental of Means: The noun used by another noun to accomplish a task.
Tasnaran kills Gochlovan with a Yentish blade.
Źentavcina Tasnaran Gochlovos nečmar.
Źentav-cena Tasnar-an Gochlov-os nečm-ar.
Yentish_blade-INS Tasnar-A Gochlov-P kill-S
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Pronouns

The Demonstrative and Interrogative

The demonstrative pronouns are jiăn, je, jiče-, davan, dav-, doče-, and pan, pa-, pače-. The proximal demonstrative (i.e. 'this') is expressed by jiăn and davan, where jiăn points to an object closer to the speaker, and davan to an object closer to the listener. Because of this property they can, in context, be used to mean 'mine' and 'yours'. Pan is the distal (i.e. 'that'), which is close to neither speaker. The interrogative pronoun (i.e. "what?") is tohan, toh-, tohče-.

When used modifying a noun, the pronouns are simply prefixed to the modified noun, as ji-, do-, pa-, and toh-.

Common Personal Pronouns

The common personal pronouns are those that a speaker can get by using in daily life.

SingularPlural
First Personnuman, num-šinan, šiň-
šenan, šeň-
Second Personnalan, naž-nalče-
Third Personnokan, noc-
xonan, xoň-
noxče-
xonče-

Pronoun šinan is exclusive; that is, we-excluding-you. Conversely, šenan is inclusive. Nokan is the animate pronoun; that is, used for humans and salient animals. Xonan is the inanimate pronoun.

Formal Personal Pronouns

Jiśnan, jiśne-, jiśnače- is a second person pronoun used by masters/lords in feudal relationships to their servants/tenants. Dośnan, dośňe-, dośnače- is its reciprocal, the first person pronoun used by servants/tenants to their masters/lords. The words literally mean "my hand" and "your hand" respectively.

Jiňraźan, jinra-, jinrayče- is a first person pronoun used by friends and/or lovers to express their captivation or infatuation with the object of their affection. It literally means "this moth", as in one drawn to a flame.

Noun Compounding

Two kinds of noun compounds exist: the appositive and the transitive.
In an appositive compound, the plural stem minus -če- of the modifying noun is prefixed to any noun:
minan (pl. stem minče-) + lovan "wolf" = minlovan 'bear', i.e. wolfish thing fond of honey
In a transitive compound, the modifying noun in the patientive case is prefixed to a noun derived from a verb:
naysan 'language' + balar 'give' + -evan = Naysosbalevan 'language giver', the byname of the mythic hero Pernaran

Naming

Tornaysan personal names are composed of a given name followed by a patronymic, and sometimes by a number of bynames. The given name is composed of a protheme and deuterotheme, i.e. two ordered syllables with literal and symbolic meanings. The most common are as follows:

Pro/DeuteroThemeMeaningSymbolism
Either(-)kar(-/an)ravenwisdom, reader of omens
Either(-)lov(-/an)wolfstrength, prowess in battle
Either(-)aswin(-/an)turtlecalm under pressure, social propriety
Promažen-nationjustice, will of the people
Prołuk-mysteryknowledge, empirical learning
Promin-honeycharm, sweetness
Protas-thornwit, acerbity, perseverance
Progox-armywarrior
Prodanat-herdwealth
Deutero-narantreehighly variable; most often, tradition
Deutero-šilancounselcivic virtue, benevolence
Deutero-jemanexampleperfection, praiseworthy
Deutero-jeźyanflowerhighly variable; most often, beauty

Flower and tree names are often compound common nouns, e.g. Łuxnaran 'mystery-tree', i.e. hawthorn, Tasjeźyan 'thorn-flower', i.e. rose. These are considered well-formed names but the symbolism is taken from the common noun rather than the simple symbols described above.

The patronymic is formed from the word jenan 'child' plus the ablative of inalienable possession of the parents' names. For example, Łukšilan jenan Karjemšyar je Goxlovšyar, "Łukšilan child of Karjeman and Goxlovan." It is common to omit the jenan which can be assumed, and one parent's name if the other is more relevant in context, as in inheritance or apprenticeship.

Noble names are formed with the noble title followed by the locative of the holdings possessed. For example, Goxlovan nekkastaman Lovsažpa, "Goxlovan, Steward of Lovsaros". The title is often omitted when it is obvious.

Bynames are often professions such as paĝosandan 'blacksmith', dančevan 'cowherd', or beževan 'speaker'. They may also be names given for particular deeds, such as Čeĝoslaževan 'ship-burner' or Mošečevan 'the wise'. Sometimes, Torish people will name themselves "friend of [name]" using the genitive of alienable possession, e.g. Pernaran ažňevan Čeĝoslaževže 'Pernaran, Čeĝoslaževan's friend'.

These forms can theoretically be chained ad infinitum, though there are few contexts in which one person might need to recite all their names (or have them recited). This does not prevent the occasional Goxlovan jenan Goxlovšyar je Tasjeźešyar nekkastaman Lovsažpa je Łuxňežpa ažňevan Maženšiźže Źentomaženosxayčevan, or, Goxlovan son of Goxlovan and Tasjeźyan, Steward of Lovsaros and Hallowcliff, Friend of Maženšilan, Thresher of the Yentish.

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